In 92 the censors issued an edict closing down the schools of Latin rhetoric in Rome. Serious students such as Cicero had to go east in the 80s to receive their higher education from leading Greek philosophers and rhetoricians.
The centre of intellectual life began to shift toward the West after the 90s. As a result of the Mithradatic wars, libraries were brought from the East to Italy. The Hellenistic kingdoms, which had provided the patronage for much intellectual activity, were dismantled by Pompey and Octavian , and Greek intellectuals increasingly joined the retinues of great Roman senators such as Pompey. Private Roman houses, especially senatorial villas on the Bay of Naples , became the focus of intellectual life; it was there that libraries were reassembled and Greek teachers kept as dependents.
Roman traditions favoured the development of certain disciplines , creating a pattern that was distinct from the Greek. Disciplines related to the public life of senators prospered—notably oratory, law, and history; certain fields of study were judged fit for diversions in leisure hours, and still others were considered beneath the dignity of an honourable Roman.
THE MIGHTY EMPERORS OF POWERFUL ROME
Areas such as medicine and architecture were left to Greeks and others of lower status, and mathematics and the sciences aroused little interest. Greek slaves especially played an important role in the intellectual life of the late republic, serving in roles as diverse as teachers, copyists of manuscripts, and oral readers to aristocrats. By the beginning of the imperial era the maturing of Roman intellectual culture was evident.
Caesar had commissioned Varro to organize the first public library in Rome, and Greek scholars such as the geographer Strabo moved west to pursue their studies in Rome. The education of the Roman elite was dominated by training in language skills, grammar , and rhetoric. The grammatici , who taught grammar and literature, were lower-class and often servile dependents.
Rhetoric , though a discipline of higher status, was still taught mainly by Greeks in Greek.
Home Away From Rome
The rhetoricians offered rules for composition: how to elaborate a speech with ornamentation and, more important, how to organize a work through the dialectical skills of definition and division of the subject matter into analytical categories. The Romans absorbed these instructions so thoroughly that the last generation of the republic produced an equal of the greatest Greek orators in Cicero.
The influence on Roman culture of dialectical thinking, instilled through rhetoric, can hardly be overstated; the result was an increasingly disciplined , well-organized habit of thinking. Roman law , though traditional in content, was also deeply influenced by Greek dialectic. For centuries the law had been passed down orally by pontifical priests. It emerged as an intellectual discipline only in the late republic, when men who saw themselves as legal specialists began to write treatises aimed at organizing existing law into a system, defining principles and concepts, and then applying those principles systematically.
Quintus Mucius Scaevola was a pivotal figure: a pontifex in the traditional role, he published the first systematic legal treatise , De iure civili , in the 80s.
Cicero credited his contemporary Servius Sulpicius Rufus with being the jurist who transformed law into a discipline ars. The decisive events of the late republic stimulated the writing of history. Then applaud as I exit. He was the most successful military man in Roman history, expanding the Empire to its greatest extent.
At home he built well, employing the talented Apollodorus of Damascus as his architect. A column recorded his victory in Dacia, while a forum and market in his name improved the capital. Elsewhere spectacular bridges, roads and canals improved military communications.
He devalued the silver denarius to finance the spending of his enormous war booty on public works, providing food and subsidised education for the poor as well as great games. He was well travelled and educated, promoting Greek philosophy. Why has history persistently ignored or failed to recognise the role of women?
In this Spotlight interview with Dan Snow, Mary Beard explores the many ways throughout history that women have been put down or silenced. Watch Now. Uniquely among Emperors Hadrian travelled to almost every part of his Empire, initiating great fortifications both in Britannia and on the Danube and Rhine frontiers.
When he did fight he could be brutal, wars in Judea killed , Jews. A great lover of Greek culture, Hadrian built up Athens as a cultural capital and patronised the arts and architecture; he wrote poetry himself. Among many spectacular building projects, Hadrian oversaw the rebuilding of the Pantheon with its magnificent dome.
Intellectual life of the Late Republic
A portrait of the serious, philoshopical Marcus Aurelius. He was even able to rule alongside Lucius Verus for the first eight years of his reign. The less accademic Lucius taking a lead in military matters. Despite constant military and political troubles, Marcuss competent administration reacted well to crises like the flooding of the Tiber in He reformed the currency intelligently in response to changing economic circumstances and picked his advisors well. He was praised for his mastery of the law and his fairness.
Commmodus Takes The Throne
The depraved behaviour of Roman emperors could fill several websites, but Marcus was moderate and forgiving in his personal life and as Emperor. Marcus is still today considered an important writer on Stoic philosophy, which values duty to and respect for others and self-control. His 12 volume Meditations, probably written while campaigning and for his own use, was a bestseller in A gate in the Aurelian Walls built to defend an empire under threat from invaders.
Aurelian was a commoner, earning his power by rising through the military. First he threw barbarians from Italy and then Roman territory. He defeated the Goths in the Balkans and wisely decided to step back from defending Dacia. Boosted by these victories he overthrew the Palmyrene Empire, which had grown from captured Roman provinces in North Africa and the Middle East, important sources of grain for Rome.