The revelation at Sinai is amid the awe-inspiring phenomena of tempests. Scholars have also noted that many of these primitive characteristics of Yahweh are seen in hymns and inscriptions devoted to Baal of the Canaanites. This may have been due to the acculturation of Israelite religion into a region dominated by Canaanite culture, where Yahweh had to compete with Baal on his own terms note the contest between Yahweh and Baal on Mount Carmel in 1 Kings A great deal of discussion has been devoted to the relationship of Yahweh to the other deities of the region.
Outside the Bible, El is known as the chief deity of the Canaanite religion. He was the father of the Canaanite god Baal and the husband of the mother goddess Ashera. Interestingly, the word "Baal" also means "lord" or "master. In fact, archaeologists and language experts indicate that it is difficult to distinguish Israelite and Canaanite culture until the early Early Iron Age, around the time of King David. We can imagine a situation in which some of the proto-Israelites worshiped a variety of gods, or worshiped God in a variety of forms using many names. Saul , anointed by the Yahwist prophet Samuel as Israel's first king, nevertheless named two of his sons Ish-baal and Meri-baal.
Baal, on the other hand, was denigrated and excluded, just as the bronze serpent icon associated with Moses Num. So too was the goddess Ashera disowned, while the chief deities of other ethnic groups were treated as having nothing in common with Yahweh. The issue is complicated by the question of whether the Israelites were truly one distinct people descended from Abraham who migrated en masse from Egypt to Canaan, rather than a confederation of previously unrelated people who came to accept a common national identity, religious mythology, and origin story.
In any case, there is much evidence that the Yahweh-only ideology did not come to the fore among the Israelites until well into the period of Kings, and it was not until after the Babylonian exile that monotheism took firm root among the Jews. Yahweh himself was sometimes worshiped in a way that later generations would consider idolatrous. For example, presence of golden cherubim and cast bronze bull statues at the Temple of Jerusalem leads many scholars to question whether the Second Commandment against graven images could have been in effect at this time, rather than being the creation of a later age written back into history by the biblical authors.
Describing an earlier period, Judges tells the story of a wealthy Ephraimite woman who consecrates 1, pieces of silver to Yahweh to be cast into an image and put into the family shrine along with other idols. Her son then hires a Levite who serves as priest at the family's altar, successfully inquiring there of Yahweh on behalf of passing travelers from the tribe of Dan.
The Danites later steal the idols and take them along with the priest to settle in the north. A grandson of Moses named Jonathan becomes their chief priest. The tale serves as a precursor the later story of the northern king Jeroboam I erecting idolatrous bull-calf altars at Dan and Bethel in competition with the Temple of Jerusalem.
English translations portray Jeroboam as saying "Here are your gods, O Israel" at the unveiling. The Hebrew, however, is "here is elohim," the same word normally translated at "God. Here we see the process by which certain aspects of El worship—such as horned altars and the sacrifice of cattle—were accepted into the worship of Yahweh, while others—such as the veneration of the bull-calf icon and the recognition of Baal as one of El's sons—were disowned.
He presents archaeological evidence suggesting that the goddess Ashera was seen as Yahweh's consort in certain times and places. An echo of language associated with Ashera worship may be found in Genesis , which sates: "The Almighty Shaddai … blesses you with blessings… of the breast and womb. Dever suggests that Ashera worship remained widespread among the common folk, while the elites, centering on the male priesthood, fought to exclude any feminine portrayals of God. Eventually, many of the characteristics of Ashera were included in the rabbinic concept of the Shekhina. The Bible seems to indicate that even though the Israelites were forbidden to worship other deities, Yahweh was not considered as the only god who actually existed.
The prophet Micah declared: "All the nations may walk in the name of their gods; we will walk in the name of the Lord our God for ever and ever" Mic. Yahweh is often referred to in the Bible as "the god of the hebrews" there being no capitalization in the Hebrew text , thus portrayed as one of several tribal deities rather than as the only God in existence.
Yahweh Creator God Israel - crowingilrauscar.cf
Psalm 82, on the other hand, seems to mark a transition point, in which God will no longer accept coexistence with other deities:. God [elohim] standeth in the congregation of God [or the gods: "elohim"]; He judgeth among the gods [elohim]….
They know not, neither do they understand; They walk to and fro in darkness: All the foundations of the earth are shaken. I said, Ye are gods, And all of you sons of the Most High. Nevertheless ye shall die like men, And fall like one of the princes. The portrait of God acting as judge in the assembly of the gods has obvious parallels in other religious traditions: El is the chief of the divine assembly in Canaanite religion, just as Zeus is the head of the court at Olympus. Here, however, God has pronounced a sentence of capital punishment on the other gods.
This parallels the viewpoint of Jeremiah Of all the names of God, the one which occurs most frequently in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton, appearing 6, times, according to the online Jewish Encyclopedia. In Judaism , pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton is taboo.
Usually, Adonai "the Lord" is used as a substitute in prayers or readings from the Torah. When used in everyday speaking the Tetragrammaton is often replaced by HaShem "the Name". According to rabbinic tradition, the name was pronounced by the high priest on Yom Kippur , the only day when the Holy of Holies of the Temple would be entered.
With the destruction of the Second Temple in the year 70 C. Beginning in the middle ages, the Tetragrammaton was widely contemplated as a tool used in mystical enlightenment, especially in kabbalistic literature, as well is in magical incantations and spells. In one mystical tradition, each letter of the 4-letter form of the Name represents a metaphoric symbol of the living power of God.
Also, when the letters of the Tetragrammaton are arranged in a kabbalistic tetractys formation, the sum of all the letters is 72 by Gematria —a rabbinic system of assigning a numerical value to each letter of the alphabet—as shown in the diagram. In another tradition, the mystical sacred name is actually 72 letters long and the high priest is said to have communed with the Almighty using this letter name of God, which was written out on a long strip of parchment, folded and slipped inside the high priest's bejeweled breastplate.
When someone would ask the high priest a question of Jewish law, the high priest could invoke the name, wherein according to lore the 12 jewels on the breastplate, representing the 12 tribes of the Israelites , would light up with the glory of God. The number 72 has a number of significances both scientifically and mystically. It is also a "prone number," meaning the product of two successive integers 8 and 9. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards.
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The First Documented Occurence of the God Yahweh? (Book of the Dead Princeton “Roll 5”)
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Did you know? Yahweh is the primary Hebrew name of God in the Bible. Credits New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. See Article History.
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